Rabu, 19 November 2008

Senin, 17 November 2008

Hatching Duck Eggs


Following are general conditions recommended for hatching eggs & egg incubators:

Incubation Period
Hatching Period

Days 1 through 25
Days 26 through 28
Temperature
99.5° Farenheit
98.5° Farenheit
Humidity
86%
94%
Turns Per Day
3, 5, or 7
Stop Turning
Notes:
1.
Opinions vary on the exact proper temperature. Many publications recommend higher temperatures because they are advising hatcheries who hatch much larger numbers of eggs. These temperature recommendations seem to work best for the Octagon Incubators that we offer.

2.
Humidity - It is very difficult to measure relative humidity in small incubators so this is one of those areas where you have to do your best to estimate. In the Octagon 10 incubator, we suggest just covering one of the two air holes to increase relative humidity a little bit. (Do NOT cover both air holes as the embryos do need air).

3.
If you don't have an auto-turner, most experts suggest turning the eggs an odd number of times each day up until a couple days before the hatching period. The odd number of turns causes the embryo to "sleep" on a varying side each nite.
Fertility Rates & Candling Duck Eggs
You can candle your eggs after seven days of incubation. This involves touching a small bright flashlight to the top of each egg and observing the growth and progress of the egg. If you find your fertility is less than 70% of the eggs that you bought


What to look for when candling duck eggs at various incubation periods...1.2.3.
4.5.6.7.
1) Clear when candled – may be infertile or had a very early death (when candled at 8 days).2) Embryo with red blood “ring” – early death when candled at 8 days.3) Fertile with red blood vessels – after 8 days.4) Red or black staining – early death when candled at 8 days.5) Dark outline with ill defined detail – possible late death (10 – 16 days) Give them a little more time though.6) Live embryo with bill in air sack – due to hatch in 24 – 48 hours.7) Normal development of air pocket according to number of days.

Incubation Tips
If your incubator doesn’t have a fan, measure the temperature half way up the side of the eggs but not touching them. Without a fan, the warm air rises and you will get a false reading if you place your thermometer on top of the eggs.
Humidity Readings
If your egg incubator is big enough there are some ways to measure humidity. One way to make your own wet bulb thermometer is to place the end of a short, hollow shoestring over the end of a thermometer. Place the other end in a container of water and put it all in the incubator. As the water evaporates from the cloth, the thermometer is cooled. If the air is very dry, much water evaporates from the cloth, cooling the thermometer. If the air is very humid, less evaporates which cools the thermometer less and a higher temperature is recorded. You can adjust the humidity by increasing the amount of water in the incubator or reducing ventilation.
Reading relative humidity is one of the more difficult things to do in a small incubator. Duck eggs require a little more humidity than chicken eggs do. Most small egg incubators (those that hold less than 40 eggs) have a well or two that holds water and generally don’t have an easy way to measure humidity. Try to follow the instructions included with the incubator as close as possible.
Turning Your Eggs
Turning your eggs is critical during the first week of incubation. Commercial egg incubators turn eggs every hour. If your incubator does not have an automatic egg turner, then a good tip is to turn your eggs an odd number of times each day. This is important so you don’t leave the eggs laying on the same side each night which is the longest period of time they go each day without turning. Draw a small pencil line on one side of each egg. Then when you turn them, it will be easy to see that you switched them from one side to the other. In small incubators, most eggs are turned on their sides. Try to set the eggs so that the large end of the egg with the air sac is higher than the small end.
Misting Your Eggs
Some breeders suggest that you spray waterfowl eggs daily. This can be done with a small amount of slightly warmed water. You can then leave the incubator open for a minute or so afterwards. Sometimes this can be of benefit. If you do it, start at day 7 and do not spray after day 25. The actual consequences of spraying are interesting. It changes the membrane of the egg so a greater percentage of moisture is lost during incubation. Ideally, a duck egg looses about 13% of its weight between the time it is laid and day 25 of incubation. Loosing significantly more or less than this reduces hatchability.
Should You Help Your Hatchlings?
Many people want to help their ducklings hatch. It is best to allow them to do the hatching themselves. The only time you want to help them is when they make a hole and then cannot progress because they are stuck in that spot. If an actual hole is made, and you can see the duckling, but no progress is made for 12 hours, you can gingerly help the duckling. If blood appears where you break pieces off the shell, stop and wait several hours. If the duckling gets stuck after it has started to break a circle around the egg, it can usually be helped without a problem. But if they are progressing on their own, let them be.
Incubator Temperature and Variances
It is important that the incubator not get too warm or too cold, as it will affect the eggs. Several hours of too high temperature is more dangerous than several hours of too cool a temperature. If your electricity goes out or you must move your incubator, do not worry, but do watch that it does not become too cold. Find somewhere to get it turned back on again and monitor the temperature closely until you are sure you are back at a steady incubation temperature.
The length of incubation time varies. For Mallards, it is about 26.5 to 27 days. For Runners, it is about 28.5 days. All others are about 28 days. If your eggs are old or the incubator is cool, incubation can take longer. If it is too warm, incubation will be completed sooner. Muscovy eggs take around 35 days to incubate. They are sort of the odd lot of the duck family.
More On Candling
Eggs can be candled after about seven days of incubation. The advantage of candling is that you can remove infertile or rotten, infected eggs. Eggs are candled in a dark room by shining a flashlight or other bright light into the egg. You should look for veins going from the interior of the egg to the air sac. If you see no clear, distinct blood veins, the chances are that the embryo never developed or died early on. So that you can know what an infertile egg looks like when it is candled, also candle a regular infertile egg that has not been incubated at all. You can see the darker, orange shadow of the yolk. If you are not sure if the embryo is alive or not, return it to the incubator. The only eggs you do not want to return are the infected eggs. They are normally dark and blotchy inside and may also appear darker through the shell in normal lighting. If they are returned, the bacteria may continue to grow and you risk the possibility of them exploding in your incubator. You also risk infecting other eggs.
If the embryo dies within the first several days, often there is a ring or a streak of blood through the egg. Most embryo deaths occur the first or last several days of incubation. It is during these periods that the most critical development occurs.
Waterfowl eggs have a greater tendency to rot and cause problems for two reasons. The first is that ducks are not as clean in their nests and the eggs are often soiled. Waterfowl also take longer to develop, allowing another week for bacteria to grow.
All of our eggs are washed immediately after collection to reduce the bacterial load on the shell surface. We use a quaternary ammonia compound that has a residual bacteriastat. It is important to keep your incubator clean and wash it out after each group of egg hatches. You want each set of eggs to be in a clean, disinfected environment as the temperature and humidity in an incubator are ideal for the growth of bacteria.
Holding Eggs Before The Incubation Period
Eggs can be held for about a week before incubation without a problem. The ideal holding temperature is about 60 degrees. A refrigerator is too cold. Development of the embryo only begins when the egg is warmed to the correct temperature.
Caring for Your Ducklings After They Hatch
Keep them warm and to feed them as follows...
Small ducks need warmth (they can't supply it themselves). You need to buy or make a "brooder" for their warmth and protection.
To make one yourself, get a big box and hang a light bulb in there that is close enough to give off some heat but not so close that the little guy can get burnt. Don't let him touch it. The box should be big enough so that the little guy can move closer to the heat when he is warm and move away from the heat when he is too hot. He'll find his own comfort level. Always be careful about placing lights and electrical wires safe and secure to prevent fires.
The best "bedding" is an old bath towel. Don't use hay or straw. It just sticks to them and is harder to clean. Don't use newspaper either as they tend to be unable to get their footing and sometimes this causes "splayed legs" (Good footing when they are small helps their legs to develop more properly).
Since ducklings hatched in captivity are separated from their natural mom, they should not be placed in water for too long at all and especially without constant supervision. Instinctually they love playing in the water, but since their oil glands are not able to produce enough oil to keep them afloat they'll drown easily. In nature baby ducklings get their water resistant oils from their moms until they are five or six weeks old and their own oil glands begin to function. The bottom line is that baby ducks love to swim but without mom around are vulnerable to drowning and chills. They don't need to swim to survive at all.
At the same time, baby ducklings do need lots of water with their food as they must have water to swallow. Due to the issues in the previous paragraph, you must devise a way for them to drink lots of water without diving into their drinking water. They can drown in that too. The best method I've ever seen is to cut a small hole in the side of a plastic milk carton that is big enough for them to put their head into but make the hole too small for them to jump through it. Then fill it with water just up to that hole. You'll have to change the water often as they will dirty it up daily (with food). You may have to teach them how to find the water in the beginning by pushing their heads in their a few times but once they figure it out, they will go back and forth between their food and water constantly. Once they start eating it seems like they never stop.
Regarding feed... go to a local feed store and ask for "unmedicated chicken mash". Basically this is mashed up chicken feed. It is important to ask for "unmedicated" brands as ducklings eat a lot more than chicks and will poison themselves on the medicated brands. They don't need the medication like chicks do. They actually can be quite hardy once they begin growing up.
Lastly, remember that you are your duckling's protector. The most common cause of death in pet ducklings (and ducks for that matter) is an attack by a predator. Ducklings have no real defense mechanism and are vulnerable to pet dogs or cats or a stray neighborhood pet. You need to be conscious of any animals around their environment and keen to provide protection. It only takes a few seconds for a playful larger animal or predator to kill your ducklings.

Sabtu, 15 November 2008

All About Duck

Surga Bebek di Kampung Para Kijang

“Total perputaran uang di sini tak kurang Rp 7 miliar per-tahun,”

Desa itu bernama Pakijangan, artinya tempat hidup kijang. Anehnya, jika mampir ke sana, bukan kijang yang didapat melainkan puluhan ribu bebek yang dipiara warga di sepanjang tepian sungai yang membelah desa itu.
Pelataran kandang berpagar bambu di kampung bebek ini dibuat menyentuh bibir sungai. Saat air sungai penuh, bagian pelataran kandang yang di genangi air menjadi tempat bebek bersuka-ria sepanjang hari.
Saat matahari mengintip dari ufuk timur, peternak di sana telah selesai memunguti telur. Sesaat kemudian deru mesin giling pakan terdengar dari sudut jalan. Waktunya meracik pakan dari bahan baku yang melimpah di desa itu, agar esok pagi telur bebek masih didapatkan. Dan ketika malam menyelimuti ‘perkampungan bebek’ ini, para peternak bersantai menikmati kopi ditingkahi suara kwek-kwek puluhan ribu bebek.

Kampung Bebek di Tepi Sungai
Soekiswo dari Sie Penyuluhan dan Kelembagaan Kantor Peternakan Brebes berkisah, sebelum 1995 warga Pakijangan, kec Bulakamba—Brebes, masih memelihara bebek di samping rumah yang kian hari semakin padat saja. Dampak bau kotoran yang menyengat dan amis sisa pakan mulai terasa.
Setelah mengalami tarik-ulur, akhir 1995 peternak bebek Pakijangan yang tergabung dalam Kelompok Tani Ternak Itik (KTTI) Adem Ayem itu pun akhirnya memindahkan lokasi peternakannya ke ‘perkampungan’ khusus bebek di lahan wedi kèngsèr (Daerah Aliran Sungai / DAS) sungai Pakijangan milik pemerintah desa setempat. Aliran sungai sepanjang 7 km itu (setara 25 ha), baru 1 km yang diberdayakan optimal.
“Total perputaran uang di sini tak kurang Rp 7 miliar per-tahun,” tutur Atmo Suwito Rasban (38 th), Ketua Koperasi KTTI AA I. Angka ini diperoleh dengan menghitung multiplier effect, meliputi omset pakan, produksi telur, produksi telur asin, DOD, bebek bayah (dara), pejantan, betina afkir dan tenaga kerja. “Tiap hari, setidaknya dibutuhkan 2 ton bekatul. Belum ikan-ikan rucah, leseh (semacam keong kecil), lancang (semacam kerang kecil dari laut) dan nasi aking yang menjadi bahan utama penyusun ransum,” imbuhnya.
“Eksistensi KTTI dan pengakuan komoditas bebek sebagai produk unggulan di wilayah ini di-perda-kan oleh Pemkab Brebes pada 2000,” ujar Soekiswo. Bupati pun setuju dengan misi sejuta bebek sepanjang sungai Pakijangan yang ditabuh KTTI Adem Ayem.
“Desa yang dulunya marginal sekarang terangkat perekonomiannya maupun posisi tawarnya di mata pemerintah. Berkah dari bebek,” tutur Mito, panggilan akrab Atmo Suwito Rasban di kampung. Rata-rata kepemilikan anggota pun meningkat. Dulu hanya 100-an, sekarang rata-rata 400 ekor/peternak. “Bahkan banyak yang memelihara 1000-an ekor,” sebutnya.
Kini, KTTI Adem Ayem (KTTI AA) desa Pakijangan ‘beranak-pinak’ menjadi 4 kelompok : Adem Ayem I hingga Adem Ayem IV. Aset total mereka mencapai Rp 650 juta, Rp 350 juta diantaranya milik Koperasi KTTI AA I.

Kewalahan
Menurut Mito, 65 ribu bebek –termasuk bayah— di kelompoknya baru mampu memproduksi 22 ribu butir telur/hari. Sebagian untuk memenuhi kebutuhan produksi telur asin kelompok, 2000 butir/hari. Ditambah usaha pembuatan telur asin warga, total kebutuhan bisa 10 ribu butir / hari.
Mito menyatakan, sejak mulai bulan puasa hingga 2 minggu pasca lebaran (1,5 bulan), total permintaan telur asin mencapai 2 juta-an butir, sehingga kekurangan pasokan 1,6 juta butir. Permintaan luar biasa banyaknya datang dari pengolah telur asin, pedagang lokal, hingga pasar Jakarta. “Berapapun produksinya mereka bersedia membeli. Sebab antara permintaan dan ketersediaan masih njomplang, ditandai tren harga telur bebek yang selalu naik hingga Rp 900,-/bt di pasar lokal,” papar lulusan Fakultas Ekonomi Universitas Islam Indonesia – Jogjakarta ini.

Selengkapnya baca Majalah TROBOS edisi November 2007

Jumat, 14 November 2008

How to Hatch Duck Eggs


By eHow Pets Editor

Instructions

Step1
Obtain duck eggs that have been fertilized.

Step2
Ensure that a proper incubator has been purchased or built. Incubators can simply be any enclosed box or area that can retain heat and has easy access to the eggs.

Step3
Make sure the temperature of the enclosure or incubator stays at approximately 99 to 99.5 degrees F for the first 25 days. Reduce the temperature to 98.5 degrees F on day 25 and allow incubating for an additional 3 days.

Step4
Control the humidity of the incubating duck eggs for the first 25 days to 86 percent. Adjust the humidity to 94 percent for the remaining 3 days.

Step5
Turn the duck eggs an odd number of times per day throughout the first 25 days. Three, five, and seven times are a common process. This allows the hatching duck eggs to "rest" in differing positions. Stop turning the duck eggs over the last 3 days.

Step6
Consider candling (placing a small, very bright flashlight at the top of the duck egg and shining light through) the duck egg after 7 days to check on the fertilization process.

Selasa, 04 November 2008

Duck Al' Orange - Alias: Canard a l'Orange; Duck in Orange Sauce


by: David Russo VMD, PhD
The right and easy way to prepare Duck al' Orange. Please use bitter oranges.

Here I propose an easy way to prepare the famous "Canard a l' Orange". It only takes less than 20 minutes to prepare and about 1 hour to cook, depending on the size of the bird. To serve 4 people you will need the following ingredients:

One whole duck, preferably Mulard duck.

4 spoons olive oil

1 cup dry white wine

3 bitter oranges

Salt

Many think that this recipe is French while its roots are actually Tuscan. Caterina de' Medici (born in Florence in 1519, wife to Enrico di Valois and mother to two kings (Enrico III and Carlo IX) introduced her refined ways and cuisine into the French court from Florence. This recipe was just one of many that she brought over.

Clean the duck, trimming off any excess fat. Salt the inside of the duck and place it in a pan with olive oil. Brown it for a few minutes on each all around and then add the white wine and some water.

Continue cooking with the lid on and a low flame, for 45-60 minutes depending on the duck's size. Add salt once cooking is finished.

In the meantime, clean one orange and with a small, sharp knife, remove the yellow part from the skin and cut it into thin strips. Boil the strips for a few minutes and strain them thoroughly. Juice the other two oranges (make sure to use bitter oranges!) and add the orange juice to the duck along with the orange strips.

Let the juice reduce then serve immediately, decorating with the orange strips. Accompanied preferably by either Champagne or a "Brut" sparkling wine.

Best Beijing Duck Houses in Beijing


by: Anna Yuen
Beijing duck is such a yummy food that no visitor to Beijing should miss it. But which is the best duck house?

There are five Beijing duck houses almost equally popular and loved by tourists. Actually, in a recent magazine poll, these five names also dominate the top positions. They all carry a different theme.

Historical and Unique Recipe: Bian Yi Fang Roast Duck Restaurant
Beijing duck price: ¥80

Bian Yi Fang was founded in 1855, a pioneer in Beijing duck. However their Beijing duck recipe is different from most of the duck houses in Beijing. They use oven heat instead of actual fire. This method is meant for environmental as well as making the duck meat more tender and juicy.

Typical Old Beijing Feel: Li Qun Roast Duck Restaurant
Beijing duck price: ¥80

Li Qun is hidden inside a hutong, making it difficult to be found. However many tourists do make an effort to find it. Best is to take a taxi and then hire a rickshaw.

Li Qun has nothing five-star, but a typical old Beijing feel - red lanterns, open garden and courtyard. It is always full plus a long waiting line. Over 90% of their guests are foreigners.

New Generation: King of Duck Roast Duck Restaurant
Beijing duck price: ¥48

“New Generation Ruler of the Century-old Duck Empire” – this is the slogan of King of Duck. They are running six shops since the first one opened in 1997.

They claim to do an old dish in a new style. You’ll find this to be a new-generation Beijing duck house. The Beijing duck they produce is almost out of fat.

Traditional and Well-known: Quanjude Roast Duck Restaurant
Beijing duck price: ¥168 / ¥70 per one-person dish

Quanjude nowadays operates under franchise. The shop at Qianmen is the original one. Foreign rulers visiting Beijing usually come here.

Founded in 1864, Quanjude is the most famous Beijing duck house for sure. Somehow there is an equal mark between Quanjude and Beijing duck.

Academic: Da Dong Roast Duck Restaurant
Beijing duck price: ¥98

Da Dong is nearby the embassy district in Beijing and is loved by ambassadors. You would always find British and Japanese ambassador entertaining their guests here.

Da Dong’s owner has an MBA degree, the only person with such qualification in the catering industry of Beijing. They have a booklet on each of their dining table to tell their guests different ways to eat Beijing duck.

Conclusion

In Beijing, many duck houses are selling at ¥38 per duck. They might not be very well-known, but are doing well. It won’t be difficult to get a good deal.

Beijing ducks are roasted to order, so they are sold as a whole duck. If a restaurant refuses to sell you half or just a dish, they are not mean. If they pre-do a lot of ducks and wait for orders, the Beijing duck won’t be crispy any more.

Duck Breeding Operation


Duck Breeding Operation

For efficient and productive duck breeding operation, consider the following tips recommended by experts from the Philippine Council for Agriculture and Resources Research in Los Baños, Laguna.

Procedure:

Maintain the proper ratio of male to female ducks in a breeding shed or kamalig. Put in one drake for every five to 10 female ducks. Keep extra drakes in a separate shed in case some male breeders die of diseases or become unproductive.
The drakes can be distinguished from the females by their voice and appearance. Females quack while drakes provide a hissing sound. Drakes have curly tail features.
If possible, the drakes should be one month older than the female ducks. This is to ensure that the males are ready for mating during the breeding season.
Choose drakes and females alike with well-developed bodies and good conformation. They should be healthy, have a good set of feathers and with keen, alert eyes. Do not select those that are obviously sickly and thin.
The following duck raising tips were lifted from PinoyNegosyo blog.

Buy your breeding stock from reliable duck raisers. The Pateros duck (native duck) is good for egg production and the Peking duck is good both for meat and egg purposes. You can also raise Muscovy duck or Pato. Muscovy has low egg production but is more self sustaining than the Pateros and Peking ducks.
Build your duck house in a quite, cool place and near as possible to a stream or pond. Local materials like bamboo, nipa and cogon are cool and cheap.
Provide each duck with at least 34 square feet of floor space. The floor should be covered with either rice hulls, corn cobs, peanut hulls or similar materials to make it dry and clean; and to help prevent the spread of pests and diseases.
You can provide a swimming pond for the ducks if you wish. One of 10 feet wide and 20 feet long is adequate for 50 birds. However, a pond is not really necessary in duck raising. The ducks can lay just as many eggs without it.
Pateros ducks start laying when they are about 4-6 months old. Peking and Muscovy ducks start laying at about 6-7 months old. In breeding, you need male for every five female ducks. Select breeders that are healthy, vigorous and without defects.
Ducklings need to be brooded or warmed until they are a month old.
a. The temperature required for brooding is 95°F for the first week, 90°F for the second week, 85°F for the third week and 80°F for the last week.
b. The behavior of the ducklings is a good indicator whether brooding temperature is correct. The ducklings huddle close together toward the source of heat when temperature is low; scattered or spread evenly when the temperature is correct; but planting and moving away from the source of heat when the temperature is too hot.
c. A good brooding area is at least 1/2 square foot per duckling during the first week. The area should be increased by about 1/2 square foot every week until the fourth week.
d. When your ducklings show signs of sickness, add three tablespoons of Nexal for every gallon of water for 2-3 days. Skip or withdraw after 3 days hen continue for another 3 days. Terramycin poultry formula can also be used. Follow the instructions on the package carefully.
e. In order to prevent Avian Pest Disease, immunize your ducks with Avian Pest Vaccine which can be obtained free from the Bureau of animal Industry (BAI).
f. Sex your ducklings. If you desire to fatten the extra males, then grow them separately from the females.
g. When ducklings are six weeks old, they can be transferred from the brooder to the growing house.
h. Transfer the layers to the laying house when they are four months old.
Feed your ducks the right kind of feed.
a. 1-day to 6-week-old ducklings should be fed with starter mash with 10-21 percent crude protein.
b. 6-week-old to 4 month old ducklings should be fed with growing mash with at least 16 percent crude protein.
c. 4-month-old ducks and above should be fed with laying ration with at least 16 percent crude protein.
d. Commercial feeds are good for your ducks. However, if you want to mix your own feed, here is a formula for a practical general purpose ration. This general purpose ration may be fed to your ducks of any age. Ingredients:
First class rice bran (darak)- 55 kilograms
Ground corn or binlid - 20 kilograms
Shrimps or snails - 25 kilograms
Wood ash or ground charcoal - 1.5 kilograms
Ordinary table salt -250 grams
Ground limestone or shells -250 grams
Afsillin or Aurofac - 250 grams
e. Also, feed plenty of chopped green leaves of either kangkong, comfrey, camote, ipil-ipil and legumes as additional feed. Give at least 10 grams of chopped green leaves per duck per day.
f. You can grow and feed fresh water snails to your ducks. Giving one gallon of fresh snails a day to 24 duck layers will help increase egg production.
g. Provide your ducks plenty of clean fresh water all the time.
If you provide a swimming pond for your ducks, limit their playing in the water to 1-2 hours a day.
Do not allow your ducks to get wet under the rain because they may get sick.
Pateros ducks should weigh about 21/2 kilograms at 6 months. They should lay about 250-280 eggs in one year. On the other hand, Peking should weigh about 3 1/24 kilograms at 6 months old and lay about 180-200 eggs in,a year.
You may start growing your replacement ducks when your layers are in their second year of laying. Dispose of your pool layers and retain the good ones.
Duck eggs and meat are as nutritious as chickens’. Eat plenty of duck eggs and meat, they are good for you and your family.
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